This section contains four pieces: machine learning, statistical learning, statistical inference, and data science. Although each of these subjects are related, they are nonetheless distinct in important facets.

Machine learning is a technology of learning algorithms whose construction requires sample data. These learning algorithms can be thought of as models.

Statistical learning is a technology to interpret, assess, and improve the performance of learning algorithms. In particular, it should be “model independent.”

Statistical inference is a technology to give statistical evidence of one hypothesis over another.

Data science combines these technologies in order to influence decision making.